Asia-Pacific National Innovation Systems
Online Resource Centre

Promotion of NIS - China


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Date and Venue
27-30 October 2006, Beijing, China

China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CFIE)
Trade and Investment Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific (UNESCAP) and
Asian and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery (APCAEM)

Brief Profile of Participants
16 international experts
5 national experts
35 participants from NIS stakeholders

Addresses Delivered during the Inaugural Session
Senior dignitary from the Government of China,
Director, Trade and Investment Division, UNESCAP
Director, APCAEM

The workshop was attended by about 40 participants from government organizations, research institutions, commercial and industrial associations, international organizations and academia. The workshop discussed various issues including: policy framework of a sub-national innovation system (SIS) approach, national innovation systems (NIS) policy framework and practices, public-private partnership for NIS and SIS, policy approaches and supporting mechanisms for innovation of SMEs, SME capacity building via cluster and networking, commercialization of public R&D, and the role of government, private sector and technology intermediaries in SIS. In addition, the workshop provided participants with a chance to share experiences, lessons learned and best practices on SIS of selected countries in the region. All participants in the workshop recognized the necessity of facilitating sub-national science, technology and innovation in order to achieve equitable national development and promote the growth of local SMEs. Particularly, the workshop underscored the vital role of a sub-national innovation system (SIS) in creating and promoting vibrant and innovative local SMEs, thus contributing to sustainable local economic growth and enhancing the community standard of living. Furthermore, the workshop noted that the setting up of a sound and strong SIS was an important policy mechanism for local economic growth, as it contributes to the creation of a favourable environment for SMEs to become more competitive by enhancing their technological and innovation capacity.

Details of the Technical Sessions

Technical Session I
A Policy Framework for Initiating Sub-national Innovation System Approach
A Conceptual Framework and Policy Guidelines for SIS approach - Mr. Deok-Soon Yim, Daedeok Innopolis Agency, Republic of Korea
View Presentation

Strategies for Local SMEs Technology Capacity Building in the Asia Pacific Region - Mr. S.P. Agarwal, Head, Centre for International Trade in Technology, Indian Institute for Foreign Trade, India
View White Paper

Technical Session II
Experiences, Lessons and Best Practices on SIS
Technology Capacity Building for SMEs - Mr. Mohd. Ghazali Mohd. Yunos, Head and Principal Consultant, SIRIM Berhad, Malaysia
View Presentation

Regional Innovation System and Industrial Cluster : Its Concept, Policy Issues and Implementation Strategies - Mr. Joung-Hae Seo Professor, Kyungpook University, Republic of Korea

Promotion of High-tech SME via Cluster & Networking - Mr. Avvari V. Mohan, Associate Professor, University of Nottingham - Malaysia Campus, Malaysia

Promotion of Technology Intermediaries - Mr. Sh. Mungunbat, Head, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Mongolia

Roles of Intermediaries in Cluster Development : from High-Tech Manufacturing to Community-based Clusters - Mr. Patarapong Intarakumnerd, Project Leader of Thailand National Innovation Study, NSTDA, Thailand
View Presentation | View White Paper

National Innovation Strategies for SMEs - Mr. Maheshower Sharma Paudel, Director General, DOCSI, MOICS, Nepal
View Presentation | View White Paper

Technical Session III
National Innovation Systems - Policy Approaches and Support Mechanisms of Some Asian Countries
NIS Policy Framework: Concept, Elements, Development and Implementation - Mr. N. Srinivasan, Innovation Management, APCTT, New Delhi
View Presentation

Policy Approaches and Support Mechanisms to Develop, Nurture and Promote Innovation in Indonesia - Mr. Manaek Simanora, Head, LIPI, Indonesia
View Presentation | View White Paper

Public-private Partnership for Innovation in SMEs - Mr. R.R. Abhyankar, Scientist G, DSIR, India
View Presentation

Policies and approaches of the Philippines Government to Promote Innovation in SMEs - Mr. Raul Sabularse, Deputy Executive Director, PCIERD, Philippines
View Presentation

Technical Session IV
Presentation of the Country Study - the China Case
National SIS Policy and Programmes - Mr. Zhou Yuan, Professor, Deputy Director,NRCSTD, MOST, China

Technology Capacity Building Strategies for SMEs - Mr. Ma Lianjie, Professor, Huazhong Science & Technology University

Innovation System for Bio-tech Industry - Mr. Wang Shuo, Professor, Tianjin Science & Technology University
View White Paper

IPR Framework for R&D Globalization - Mr. Mao Jinsheng, Director General, State Intellectual Property Office of China (SIPO)
View White Paper

Techno-park and Cluster Initiative - Ms. Wang Jici, Professor, Peking University

Technical Session V
Discussion towards Action Plan

  • Public-Private Partnership for NIS & SIS; SME Technology Capacity Building via Cluster and Networking; Commercialization of Public R&D and Role of Technology Intermediaries.
  • Policy Direction for SIS Establishment in China; Technology Capacity Building for SMEs in China; Role of Government and Private Sector in SIS, Action Plan for SIS Initiative in China

Recommendations Arising Out of the Technical Sessions
(a) General Policy Directions for SIS Establishment
Governments and private sector may consider the following aspects

  • Set a clear vision and have a strong political commitment to drive a SIS initiative.
  • Build a consensus on the necessity of SIS establishment among key innovation actors.
  • Establish an appropriate policy framework and governance system through arranging institutional and legal frameworks to initiate a SIS practice.
  • Build a strong S&T base and strengthen the technological capability of actors and the necessary infrastructure for innovation at the provincial level.
  • Create social capital such as trust, cooperation, learning, interaction, creativity, innovation culture, entrepreneurship, etc.
  • Develop more responsive clusters and innovation networks as crucial hubs in order to set up an effectively functioning SIS.
  • Promote private-public partnership including close linkage and cooperation between government, industry, academy and research institutes.
  • Strengthen the linkage of a SIS with global innovation and R&D networks, and coordinate SIS- NIS- sectoral innovation systems.
  • Promote technology intermediaries to facilitate entrepreneurship, technology incubation, R&D commercialization and innovative venture companies.
  • Strengthen the role of local universities as a key actor of a SIS through nurturing research-oriented universities, and setting up research clusters, technology incubators and specialized research units within universities.
  • Expand financial and human resources to meet socio-economic demands, establish an R&D investment portfolio by exercising technology foresight and using technology road mapping techniques.
  • Formulate and implement a coordinated policy framework, particularly related to industry, trade & commerce, finance and technology or innovation systems.
  • Integrate drivers of technology development, such as skills development, R&D capabilities, ability to attract FDI, and the strengthening of local firms and infrastructure to create a virtuous circle for technological development and innovation.
  • Promote technology-based enterprises by setting up innovative clusters or science parks, effectively managing IPRs, stimulating demand for science in the business sector, boosting spin-offs from research institutes, and financing start-up activities.
  • Promote community-based technology intermediaries that have local knowledge and trust of community members to successfully implement cluster policy and programmes.
  • Promote collective roles by central government, provincial government/local authorities and universities in developing sub-national innovation systems.
  • Set up ‘technology services clinics’ in the vicinity of SMEs, industrial estates, clusters and incubators as a sustainable business model.
  • Set up technology-licensing offices in universities and public R&D institutes.
  • Promote Institutions of Excellence as well as vocational level training institutions.
  • Strengthen the role of intermediaries as a service support provider for SME promotion by eliciting support of NGOs and local governments.
  • Need to enact technology transfer act (incorporating modes of sharing IP, etc.) and promote government support and venture capital for start-ups.
  • Set up R&D consortia, effective screening and evaluation systems for SIS related programmes and training module for technology incubator centres and innovation centres.
  • Identify patents and IPRs including expired patents and set up a database for local SMEs to use these information; and
  • Promote a micro credit system for meeting the financial needs of micro enterprises – for matching grants given by governments.

(b) Policy Recommendations for Promoting the SIS Initiative in China
The Government of China may consider the following aspects

  • Arrange institutional and legal frameworks for the efficient initiation of SIS with a policy coordination mechanism at the national level and with the active participation of local governments being ensured.
  • Design a unique SIS model catering to demands of a concerned region and implement the SIS initiative step by step, by selecting priority areas and specialized industries.
  • Construct a SIS jointly by the central and local government through integrating innovation resources, promoting the construction of big technology platforms, and an innovation network infrastructure.
  • Establish an evaluation and monitoring mechanism to ensure the efficient implementation of SIS related projects such as high-tech industrial zones, economic development zones, industrial parks, etc. by developing regional innovation indicators.
  • Establish regional industry technological innovation platforms by establishing the regional agriculture innovation systems, facilitating knowledge and industrial cluster building, and setting up the knowledge and information service system.
  • Compile and disseminate the experience with the “Yangtze River Delta” SIS model to other regions or provinces.
  • Maintain an appropriate balance between imported and independent innovation as well as integrated and primitive innovation by doing S&T forecast, strengthening basic research, developing strategic high-technologies, promoting advanced manufacturing industry and modern knowledge service industry.
  • Transform the old North-east industrial base into a modern equipment industrial base and a raw materials industrial base with international competitive power by enhancing the regional technological innovation capacity focusing on the strengthening of independent innovation capacity.
  • Further develop the Central area towards “abrupt rise in central region” by taking talent, capital and technology convergence as the key point, by establishing a cross-regional S&T cooperation mechanism and improving the endogenous innovation capability of industrial technologies.
  • Promote the S&T and innovation capacity of the Western area by improving the S&T innovation environment, increasing the technical capability and realizing the striding development in S&T and the economy.
  • Develop a dual technology development programme and an effective technology transfer mechanism for promoting both spin-offs and spin-outs among civilian and military R&D institutions.
  • Place high priority on the SME promotion as an important element of the national development strategy, implement the SME developmental strategy and "SME develop vigorous plan”.
  • Build a SME technology innovation public support platform as a core base for an SME technology innovation service system with functions related to design, information, R&D, experiment, testing, consulting, and training for SME innovation.
  • Deepen the finance system reform by developing a credit guarantee system, and introducing a more positive and practical tax revenue preferential policy.
  • Enforce effectively the "SME Promotion Law" by developing applicable tools and support measures such as finance, venture capital, innovation, market development, and social service.
  • Establish a higher level of government institution, specially responding to the SME strategic plan at the national level to coordinate the development of the city and countryside SMEs.
  • Continue to promote high-tech enterprises as a growth engine by addressing the challenges related to technological innovation, R&D commercialization, high-tech value chain access, IPR management, human resource and incentive mechanism.
  • Need to promote strong agents such as research institutes/universities, enterprises with good management, venture capital, and infrastructure (incubator, national policy support mechanism and IPR protection).
  • Develop policies to stimulate ‘interaction’ among agents such as incentives and set clear objectives of cluster with clear specialization.
  • Create a competitive environment to promote innovation, consider market demands for cluster building and set up cluster project execution bodies which will integrate all cluster activities and facilitate linkages among agents such as organizing meetings.

(c) International Organizations (UNESCAP, APCTT and APCAEM)
UNESCP, APCTT and APCAEM may consider the following aspects

  • Initiate a comprehensive review of the current status and prospects of existing policies, programmes and mechanisms for SMEs technological capabilities at the regional level.
  • Organize programmes to exchange expertise and experiences among member countries for various groups of beneficiaries.
  • Conduct an annual survey on SIS policy and programmes in the region and prepare a manual of best practices on SIS for the promotion of SMEs technology capacity building.
  • Provide a forum for member countries, linked with existing APCTT networks to share success stories and lessons in their respective national efforts to promote both SIS and NIS.
  • Establish an Asian and Pacific cooperation network for SME innovation and sectoral innovation (APCTT and APCAEM).
    Continue to organize national workshops and seminars on SIS to enhance technical capacity of member countries by extending a technical cooperation project on SIS.
  • Raise awareness and understanding of the innovation system process which contributes to increased knowledge, productivity, growth, and better economic performance.
  • Facilitate inter-regional, regional and inter-country STI policy coordination, promote networking and facilitate information flows and sharing of national experiences on SIS.
  • Provide technical advisory services to assist member countries in developing their SIS policy and SME technology capacity building programmes by pooling policy expertise.
  • Provide information on the new trends of SIS policy initiation across the world including efficient and effective models, elements, major policy instruments and real practices.
  • Establish a regional innovation system network to share information, knowledge and best practices and promote policy dialogue and private-public partnership.
  • Organize a “CTO (Chief Technology Officer) policy forum” at the regional level where the directors of public research institutes could exchange R&D strategies, discuss ways and means to promote the transfer of technology and identify joint projects.
  • Consider studies of impact or implications of WTO, RTA, FTA and TRIP on SMEs as well as study on best practices from advanced economies – to act as a guide for NIS and SIS
  • Consider a study to develop a generalized innovation indicators for evaluating SIS related projects such as high-tech industrial zones, clusters and techno-parks, etc.
  • Consider a study on impact of changing global supply chains and how to help SMEs deal with this phenomena.
  • Set up and promote innovation funds/grants for enhancing partnerships, acquisition of / upgrading technology – for SMEs (ADB, WB, etc.)