Mini Hydro
Description of technology
Hydropower is based on simple concepts. Moving water turns a turbine, the turbine spins a generator, and electricity is produced. Micro-hydro schemes extract energy from water flowing downhill, without the need for large dams.
Many other components may be in a system, but it all begins with the energy already within the moving water.
Before we can start designing the hydro system or estimating how much electricity it will produce, it is needed to make following four essential measurements:
• Head (the vertical distance between the intake and turbine)
• Flow (how much water comes down the stream)
• Pipeline (penstock) length
• Electrical transmission line length (from turbine to home or battery bank)
It can be used efficiently to generate electricity in mountainous region, canals and rivers without any storage (Dams).Small hydro is significant for off-grid, rural, remote area applications in far flung isolated communities having no chances of grid extension for years to come
The micro hydropower plant is owned, operated and maintained by the community
Following Turbine are available
• Crossflow Turbines 2kw to 500 kW
• T-15 Crossflow Turbines 5kw to 120 kW Pelton Wheel
• Turbine 5kW to 300 kW
• Kaplan Turbine 10Kw to 100 kW
• Turgo Turbine 5 kW to 100 kW
Specific Features
Micro hydel are currently working in the rural and hilly areas of Pakistan where grid electricity is not possible and people are able to continue their daily routines using electricity being generated from these power plants. Micro-hydro schemes can be co
Keywords (maximum 5)
Electricity, Micro hydel, Hydel turbines, Pakistan
Status of Technology
Fully Commercialized
It only takes a small amount of flow (as little as two gallons per minute) or a drop as low as two feet to generate electricity with micro hydro. Electricity can be delivered as far as a mile away to
Areas of application/Business opportunities
Off grid rural and remote areas of the country
List of components used
Turbines • Pelton turbines work well with a high head and do not require a large flow. • Francis turbines are used with lower heads and higher flows. • Cross-flow or Banki turbines are used at even lower heads and larger flows, and are much easier to make than most other designs. • River current turbines can be used with a large flow in a river. • Propeller turbines are used for very low heads and large flows Penstockïƒ main pressure building conduit. Must use care if head is large, 130 psi or greater. High head pressure can be dangerous. Generatorsïƒ most common types used are either synchronous or induction depending on power application Transformerïƒ AC conversion of generator output voltage to transmission line or use voltage Load control governors Civil works In addition to the turbine, a system needs civil works to get the water to the power house in which the turbine is installed. A small dam is required in the stream bed to direct the water to the ‘head works’.
Name of the component
Name of the organization
Mukhtiar Engineering Works,
Address/Zip code
Malakand Road Opposite Railway Station Gujar Garhi Mardan, KPK, Pakistan
+92-937-864238 +92-300-5735238